Ajamoda

Ajamoda consists of dried, aromatic fruits of Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) F. V. M.
ex Benth. (Fam. Umbelliferae); an annual herb cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat,
Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka; collected by thrashing plants on a mat and dried in shade
or in drying sheds.

SYNONYMS
Sanskrit : Dipyaka
Assamese : Bonjamani, Bonajain, Yamani, Ajowan
Bengali : Randhuni, Banyamani
English : —
Gujrati : Bodi Ajamo, Ajamo
Hindi : Ajmuda, Ajmod
Kannada : Oma, Ajavana, Omakki
Kashmiri : Fakhazur, Banjuan
Malayalam : Ayamodakum, Omam
Marathi : Ajmoda, Oova
Oriya : Banajuani
Punjabi : Valjawain, Ajmod
Tamil : Omam
Telugu : Naranji vamu
Urdu : Ajmod

DESCRIPTION
a) Macroscopic
Drug consists of small, ovoid fruit; bulk colour yellowish brown, mainly occur as
entire cremocarps with pedicel attached or detached and bifid stylopod, free ends curved
sometimes occurs as separate mericarps; cremocarps glabrous, ovoid to conical, about
1.5-3.0 mm long and 1.2-2.8 mm wide, yellow to yellowish green; separated mericarps
broadly ovoid, more or less curved, dorsal surface convex with five equally distinct,
longitudinal primary ridges; at the summit curved stylopodiurn, commissural surface
flat, showing darker and light coloured longitudinal bands, former representing the
position of vittae and vascular bundles ; odour; aromatic; taste, slightly bitter giving a
sensation of warmth to tongue.

b) Microscopic
Transverse section of fruit shows mericarps with four large vittae on dorsal
surface, two on commissural surface and four primary ridges on dorsal surface; 3-5
secondary oil canals present under each primary ridge and also between ridges;
3carpophore present on commissural surface; epicarp cells with thin striated cuticle, outer
walls drawn into papillae; stomata, anomocytic type upto 35 µ in diameter; mesocarp
consists of polygonal paranchyma,: with thickened and lignified cells, measuring
30-62-95µ. in diameter with oval to round pits; collateral vascular bundles lie beneath
epicarp; tracheids 25-203-388 µ in length with spiral, scalariform or reticulate
thickenings; xylem parenchyma lignified, elongated with elliptical pits, measuring
52-118-176 by 13-30-44 µ large secondary vittac towards endosperm measure upto
123µ in width and towards periphery the smallest vittae measuring 184µ in diameter.

Powder-Shows moderately thick-walled cell of epicarp exhibiting characteristic
striations and occasional presence of stoma, fragments of trichomes and glandular hairs,
reticulate parenchymatous cells of mesocarp, fragments of yellowish-brown vittae;
fragments of endosperm thick-walled polygonal cells containing aleurone grain and
micro rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH
Foreign matter (Including fStalk) Not more than 5%,
Total Ash Not more than 14%,
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 14%,
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 14%
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 3%
Volatile oil Not less than 2 % v/w

CONSTITUENTS – Essential oil and fixed oil.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Dipana, Vidahi, Kaphavatajit, Rucik¤t, Kamijit, Sulaghna

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Ajamodarka, Ajamodadi Curna.

THERAPEUTIC USES – Gulma, Aruci, Ëdhm¡na, Hikk¡, Chardi K¤mi Roga, á£la

DOSE – 1-3 g of the drug in powder form.

Note: Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC) Sprague Syn. Carum roxburghianum Benth.
Hook.f. is the common market substitute.